AKC/CKC Papers:

By Martin Wahl

AKC verification practices
AKC/CKC breed rules
How does inbreeding cause problems?

OFA hip certificates

The AKC and CKC Certificates:


AKCcert.jpg (18739 bytes)

This is an original AKC registration certificate. It's all you get for your money. A little piece of paper with a beautiful AKC logo and the name of your dog and it's parents. That's it. And it's all anybody needs in America to become a breeder, and start another puppy mill. The actual size is 4" by 8.5"  (just the right size for toilet paper).

On the back is a transfer request form, very handy to fill out and send in (so AKC can quickly collect another registration fee).

The AKC/CKC insist that every new owner must get a new registration and pay the full fee again, - and again, every time the dog changes ownership. And it doesn't even include a certified pedigree (however unreliable), which again costs an additional hefty fee (FCI registration certificates usually include a reliable 3-5 generation certified pedigree at no extra cost). FCI registries such as the SV will issue its Registration Certificate only once for each puppy (to the original breeder) for about the same fee as the AKC. After that, the papers stay with the dog. When the dog is being sold, the seller must enter the new owner in the space provided on the original papers, without additional fee.

The CKC certificate is very similar to the AKC certificate, except it's 7 by 10.5 inches, has a tattoo number (required in Canada) and it gives the parent's (foreign) registration numbers. Plus, it can be folded (doubled-up) for use as toilet paper. Other than that, it's just as unreliable and useless as the AKC paper, but needed to become a backyard breeder or start your own puppy mill.

Here too, on the back is a very handy transfer request form, but don't forget to send in the $12.50 to 25.- fee ($50 for non-members). This does NOT include the pedigree, that's another $ 21.- to 42.- ($74.- for non members).

CKCcert.jpg (8682 bytes)

AKC verification practices

Even if the AKC had some sort of a breed code, it has no system to verify, no means of controlling or policing anything a breeder does. (Unlike the SV which has a "breed warden" in every local club in Germany (over 2200), and every SV judge routinely checks a dogís tattoo number before every entry into any show or trial) As a result, a breeder in America can do anything he/she pleases. That may be: applying valid registration papers to several different dogs, registering several more puppies in a litter than were actually born, (to either sell the extra registration certificates or use them later, on dogs obtained from Humane societies, farmers, SPCA's, garage sales, etc.), use one dog with good hips to get several other dogs with bad hips OFA certified. Even show one proven show dog in many shows and apply the championship points to one or several lesser dogs that couldn't win any show points on their own. Itís all made possible by the lack of tattoo requirements. Not having to tattoo any dogs is the same as not having license plates on any car. Just imagine the police trying to deal with American traffic if no car had license plates.

AKCpedi.jpg (30022 bytes)

This is an AKC "certified" pedigree (actual size 8.5 by 11.5 inches). It has the most beautiful all gold AKC logo and 3 generations of ancestral names and registration numbers. That's it again. It does certify two things: 1 - the fee was paid, and 2 - it's the same information that the AKC has in their 'official Stud Book records'. Does it really matter whether the official records were compiled from information supplied by backyard breeders and puppy mills? 

You can check any foreign sounding names to see if they are German sounding American, or German working or show


AKC/CKC breed rules

Because the AKC and CKC both try to accommodate about 140 different breeds, their breed requirements have to be very simple. Anyone with an AKC/CKC registered female dog, or just with an AKC or CKC registration certificate (never mind the dog), and sufficient funds to pay for the registration of a litter (which does not include the registration of the individual puppy), can be a breeder and get a litter registered.

There are no other requirements. No need for tattooing a dog in America, or for hip certificates, temperament tests, gun tests, minimum training, or any minimum requirement. Worst of all, the AKC and CKC will allow any inbreeding, such as father-daughter, brother-sister (in people, that would be called "incest"), and will register those puppies as pure-bred without indicating the inbreeding on their registration certificates. Thus, there are likely generations of repeated inbreedings in AKC and CKC bred dogs.

Here is a live example of an American puppy mill
See for yourself: visit this web site with up-to-date information and many pictures right now

How does inbreeding cause problems?

Itís simple: Most hereditary disorders are caused by "recessive" genes. As long as one of the partners has a good gene, it will override the bad copy of the other partner. But if both partners are from the same family, they have the same gene "pool", which means the same types and numbers of recessive genes. And of course, bringing together the same "bad" recessive genes must bring out all of their hereditary disorders.

The veterinary profession must be aware, more than any one else, of the suffering of the American dog population as a result of all that inbreeding. But none of them ever say anything against inbreeding. They appear to be in no hurry to change anything, because they benefit by raking in millions of dollars off of the owners of sick and crippled dogs.

OFA hip certificates

Some people will argue that the OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc.) is more reliable than the German "a" stamp, because OFA will only certify a dog after it is 24 month old. Itís debatable, because dogs are known to be finished growing at 12, not 24 month of age. However, there are other, more prevalent facts that need to be considered.

After breeding for 12 years, I have had more than 100 of my own dogs x-rayed, and have had many puppy owners discuss their x-ray experiences and puppy guarantee claims with me. This taught me that veterinarians will come up with as many different HD (Hip Dysplasia) judgments as the number of x-rays they take of a given dog. (So, if your veterinarian diagnoses your dog to have HD, simply go to the next veterinarian, until you get an x-ray that can be OFA certified.) I have never been able to figure out how they do that. Also, I once had a 17 month old dog with an OFA preliminary "good" shipped to Germany (for training), where it was refused the "a" stamp (German SV hip certificate).

Whatís most disturbing, is the fact that North American veterinarians are not accustomed to, and sometimes refuse to certify the tattoo number of the dogs they x-ray, because most AKC registered dogs donít have a tattoo anyway. As a result, anyone could take a dog with good hips to a veterinarian and claim it to be any other dog they want OFA certified. This makes the entire OFA system as unreliable and therefore as useless as AKC certificates.

OFA hip certificate (actual size; 5.5 by 8.5 inches)OFAhip.jpg (29894 bytes)

OFA elbow certificate (actual size; 5.5 by 8.5 inches)
OFAelbo.jpg (24921 bytes)

If you have a problem believing any of the above, you may want to read the book "The Puppy Report" by Larry Shook

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Copyright 2001 Martin Wahl, Real GSD.RealGSD1@netscape.net.All rights reserved.Please view his site Real GSD.